RECIPE is responsible for a large part of the Minor Clinical Research and Reasoning in Internal Medicine which is part of the third year curriculum of the medical degree at the Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location VUmc. Every year, this minor is held from August until January and includes 6 different topic within Internal Medicine: Clinical pharmacology and toxicology, acute internal medicine, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular ageing, bone and endocrinology and transgender medicine. By using interactive (guest)lectures and working groups students will gain knowledge of the newest treatment modalities within clinical pharmacology, will try to design their own guidelines, perform a medication review on their grandparents and will be up-to-date with knowledge about the latest party drugs and toxidromes. By using side-visits (e.g botanical gardens, visits to pharmaceutical companies and visits to clinical pharmacology related institutes), student-run activities and innovative educational methods such as creating an Escape room in collaboration with the Dutch Institute for Rational Use of Medicine (publicatie Chiel/video: Educational escape room on Vimeo) this minor has become very educational and popular in undergraduates.

The following themes are dealt within this course:

A. Fundamentals of Drug development and Regulation:
– Drug discovery and preclinical development.
– Clinical trials and their ethical approval.
– Drug evaluation and regulatory approval.
– Systematic detection of adverse drug reactions (pharmaco- epidemiology, pharmacovigilance, drug safety).
– Marketing and drug promotion by industry.

B. Pharmacotherapeutics – population level:
– Choosing the “right” drug.
– Guideline development.
– Guideline application in practice.
– essentials of Pharmaco-economics.

C. Pharmacotherapeutics – individual level:
– Choosing the “right” drug.
– Deviating from guidelines.
– Towards Personalised Medicine: The importance of pharmacogenomics/genetics, age, gender and ethnicity, and interactions.

D. Drug toxicity:
– Intoxications and suicide, party drugs.
– Environmental Toxicology/Pharmacology-Toxicology.
– PK-PD and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.
– Lifestyle drugs.

Learning objectives
The student:
• is able to apply the principles of preclinical and clinical development of medicines and regulations pertaining to their use.
• is able to identify and debate (novel) ethical issues related to medicines use and development.
• understands the implications of differences between pharmacotherapeutics at population and individual level.
• is able to apply the principles of personalized medicine (genetics, age, gender and ethnicity).
• is able to critically appraise scientific literature and research designs with regard to drug research.